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The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis. In this shuttle, the enzyme called cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate by oxidizing one molecule of NADH to NAD+ as in the following reaction.
NADH + H+ -> NAD+ + 2H+
Glycerol-3-phosphate then gets converted back to dihydroxyacetone posphate by a membrane-bound mitochondrial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, this time reducing one molecule of enzyme-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to FADH2. FADH2 then reduces coenzyme Q (Ubiquinin to Ubiquinone) which enters into oxidative phosphorylization.
The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle allows the NADH to contribute to the oxidative phosphorylization pathway in the mitochondria to generate ATP.

See also


External links

  • http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/glycerol-phosphate-shuttle.html
  • http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/601glycolysissum.html
  • http://courses.cm.utexas.edu/jrobertus/ch339k/overheads-3/ch19_glycerol-shuttle.jpg

General References

Jeremy M. Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer. "Biochemistry." 6th ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York: 2007