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Hindu units of measurement

    The '''Hindu metrics of time''' can be summarized as below
    Hindu Kaala Vyavahara (Metrics of Time)

    Sidereal metrics

    • a paramaanu' is the normal interval of blinking in humans or approximately 4 seconds
    • a vighati is 6 paramaanus or approximately 24 seconds
    • a ghati is 60 vighatis or approximately 24 minutes
    • a muhurta is equal to 2 ghadiyas or approximately 48 minutes
    • a nakshatra ahoratram or sidereal day is exactly equal to 30 muhurtas (Note: A day is considered to begin and end at sunrise not midnight)

    Small units of time used in the vedas

    • A leekshaka is 1/60th of a pranamu or 1/15th of a second;
    • a lava is 1/60th of a leekshakamu or 1/900th of a second;
    • a renu is 1/60th of a lavamu or 1/54000th of a second;
    • a truti is 1/60th of a renuvu or the time it takes for a needle to penetrate a lotus leaf or 1/3240000th of a second

    Lunar metrics

    • a Tithi (also spelled thithi) or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the moon and the sun to increase by 12° Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours
    • a paksa or lunar fortnight consists of 15 Tithis
    • a masa or lunar month (approximately 295 days) is divided into 2 pakshas: the one between new moon and full moon is called gaura (bright) or shukla paksha; the one between full moon and new moon krishna (dark) paksha
    • 2 lunar months are 1 Ruthu
    • 3 Rithus are 1 Aayanam
    • 2 Aayanas are 1 year

    Tropical metrics

    • a yaama is 7½ Ghatis
    • 8 yaamas 1 half of the day(either day or night)
    • an ahoratram is a tropical day (Note: A day is considered to begin and end at sunrise not midnight)

    Years are grouped into yugas (ages):
    The Four Yugas
    1728000 solar yearsSatya Yuga
    1296000 solar years Treta Yuga
    864000 solar yearsDwapar Yuga
    432000 solar yearsKali Yuga

    • One cycle of the above four yugas is one mahayuga (432 million solar years)
    • A manvantara consists of 71 mahayugas (306720000 solar years)
    • After each manvantara follows one Sandhi Kala of the same duration as a Krita Yuga (1728000 solar years) (It is said that during a Sandhi Kala the entire earth is submerged in water)
    • A kalpa consists of a period of 1728000 solar years called Adi Sandhi followed by 14 manvantaras and Sandhi Kalas for a total of 1000 mahayugas or 4320000000 (432 billion) solar years
    • Two kalpas constitue a day and night of Brahma; the life cycle of Brahma is one hundred years of Brahma or 311 trillion years

    The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17/18 February 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar

    See also

    • Hindu calendar
    • Jyotish