<!-- <tr colspan=2 align=center> --><!-- INSERT PICTURE HERE --><!-- </tr> --><tr> <th colspan="2" align=center bgcolor="#FFDEAD">General</th></tr><tr> <td>Name</td> <td>Hydrogen [..],Hydrofluoric acid">
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Hydrofluoric acid

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly corrosive solution of the chemical compoundhydrogen fluoride in water. Pure hydrogen fluoride is often called anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Paradoxically, though in chemical terms hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid, it has the unique ability to dissolve almost all inorganic oxides. As such, it must be stored in plastic containers, though ideally it should be stored in teflon bottles. In the human body, hydrofluoric acid reacts with calcium and damages nerves, bone, and several organs including the heart and kidneys.
    Initial treatment to hydrofluoric acid exposure usually involves applying calcium gluconate gel to the exposed areas. If exposure is high, or too much time has passed, a calcium solution may be injected directly into a local artery or surrounding tissues. In all cases, hydrofluoric acid exposure requires immediate professional medical attention.


    Industrially, hydrofluoric acid is produced from the mineral fluorspar, also known as calcium fluoride (chemical formula CaF2) and concentrated sulfuric acid. When combined at 250°C, these two substances react to produce hydrogen fluoride according to the chemical equation
    CaF2 + H2SO4 → 2 HF + CaSO4

    The vapors from this reaction are a mixture of hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid, and a few minor byproducts, from which hydrogen fluoride can be isolated by distillation.


    Hydrofluoric acid's ability to dissolve oxides makes it important in the purification of both aluminium and uranium. It is also used to etch glass, to remove surface oxides from silicon in the semiconductor industry, as a catalyst for the alkylation of iso-butane and butene in oil refineries and to remove oxide impurities from stainless steel in a process called pickling.
    Hydrofluoric acid is also used in the synthesis of many fluorine-containing organic compounds, including teflon and refrigerants such as freon.


    In the body, hydrofluoric acid reacts with calcium and magnesiumions and can disable organs whose proper function depends on these metal ions. Exposure to hydrofluoric acid may not be initially painful, and symptoms may not occur until several hours later, when the acid begins to react with calcium in the bones. If left untreated, hydrofluoric acid exposure can result in severe or even lethal damage to the heart, liver, kidneys, and nerves.
    Exposure of less than 10% of the body can be fatal, even with immediate medical treatment. [1]

    Name Hydrogen fluoride
    Chemical formula Hydrogen|HFluorine|F
    color|Appearance Colorless gas

    Physical properties
    Atomic weight|Formula weight 20.1 atomic mass unit|amu
    Melting point 190 kelvin|K (-83 celsius|°C)
    Boiling point 294 kelvin|K (19.5 celsius|°C)
    Density 0.97 ×103 kilogram|kg/metre|m3 (liquid)
    Solubility miscible with water

    Standard enthalpy change of formation|ΔfH0gas ? joule|kJ/mole (unit)|mol
    ΔfH0liquid ? kJ/mol
    ΔfH0solid ? kJ/mol
    Standard molar entropy|S0gas, 1 bar ? J/mol·K
    S0liquid, 1 bar ? J/mol·K
    S0solid ? J/mol·K

    Ingestion Toxic, most likely fatal.
    Inhalation Highly toxic, most likely fatal, non-fatal doses can result in pulmonary edema.
    Skin Most likely fatal, absorbs through skin to cause nerve, bone and organ damage.
    Eyes Extremely dangerous, high chance of blindness.
    SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

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