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    == Isotopes Isobars Isotones and Isodiaphers ==


    There are four kinds of terms in Nuclear Chemistry to start with; Isotopes Isobars Isotones and Isodiaphers Interestingly they can be interlinked with each other via alpha beta positive and beta negative emissions


    They are category of atoms which have same atomic number but different mass number For example; 612C 613C and 614C 12C is used as standard for calculating the number of atoms in one mole Hydrogen also has three known isotopes; protium (1H) deuterium (2H) and tritium (3H)They have the same atomic number 6 but different mass number ie 12, 13 and 14 respectively Since they are bound to belong to only one element hence their existence also varies among the isotopes For example the isotopes of Chlorine 35Cl and 36Cl are found to have approximately 76% and 24% existence in nature respectively The isotopes may vary in some physical and chemical properties in some cases


    Isobars are defined as the atoms or ions having same atomic mass but different atomic numbers They are generally formed by subsequent beta emissions in which the atomic number changes by one unit but the atomic mass remains almost same as the mass of beta particles are negligible as compared to neutrons or protons


    These are the atoms which are categorized on the basis of having same number of neutrons They are either formed by beta emissions or exist in nature


    Isodiaphers are termed as the atoms which have same value of n-p; ie they have the same value of difference in the number of neutrons and protons (where n is the number of neutrons and p is the number of protons)

    Understanding the terms

    All the terms discussed here can be well understood by a simple example;Consider a decay process in which A loses one alpha particle to form B; B loses one beta negative particle to form C and C also loses one beta negative particle to form D.
    Now let say the atomic mass mass number of A is a and atomic number is z. So atomic mass of B is a-4 and atomic number is z-2 For C and D the atomic mass mass number is a-4 only but atomic numbers are z-1 and z respectively
    Hence we deduce a conclusion that;
    i) A and D are isotopes
    ii) A and B are isodiaphers
    iii) B, C and D are isobars
    iv) B, C and D are isotones
    but remember one thing that isobars and isotones are NOT same