is the capital
and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population fast approaching 9 million, Lima is the fifth largest city in Latin America, behind Mexico City
, São Paulo, Buenos Aires
and Rio de Janeiro. Lima is home to one of the largest financial hubs in Latin America. It has been defined as a beta world city by GaWC international rankings.
Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro
on January 18, 1535, as La Ciudad de los Reyes, or "The City of Kings." It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Today, around one-third of the Peruvian population lives in the metropolitan area.
According to early Spanish chronicles the Lima area was once called Itchyma
, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as limaq
, pronounced , which means "talker" in coastal Quechua). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted in the local language, thus the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings () because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. Nevertheless, this name quickly fell into disuse and Lima
became the city's name of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both Lima
and Ciudad de los Reyes
can be seen together as names for the city.
It is worth noting that the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac
, and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua where the word for "talker" was pronounced ). However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not the Incas, and this name is actually an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. Later, as the original inhabitants of the valley died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. In modern times, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.
thumb|left| City Walls were built between 1684 and 1687 by viceroy Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull.
]In the pre-Columbian
era, the location of what is now the city of Lima was inhabited by several Amerindian groups under the Ychsma polity, which was incorporated into the Inca Empire
in the 15th century.
[Conlee et al., "Late Prehispanic sociopolitical complexity", p. 218.]
In 1532, a group of Spanish conquistadors
led by Francisco Pizarro
defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his Empire. As the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered,
[Hemming, The conquest, p. 28.]
he chose the Rímac valley to found his capital on January 18, 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes
(City of the Kings).
[Klarén, Peru, p. 39.]
In August 1536, the new city was besieged by the troops of Manco Inca, however, the Spaniards and their native allies defeated the Inca rebels.
[Hemming, The conquest, p. 203–206.]
thumb| of Lima|Balconies were a major feature of Lima's architecture during the colonial period.
]Over the next few years, Lima gained prestige as it was designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia
[Klarén, Peru, p. 87.]
During the next century Lima flourished as the center of an extensive trade network which integrated the Viceroyalty with the Americas, Europe and the Far East.
[Andrien, Crisis and decline, pp. 11–13.]
However, the city was not free from dangers; powerful earthquakes destroyed most of the city in 1687.
[Andrien, Crisis and decline, p. 26.]
A second threat was the presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean, which led to the building of the Lima City Walls between 1684 and 1687.
[Higgings, Lima, p. 45.]
The 1687 earthquake marked a turning point in the history of Lima as it coincided with a recession in trade and economic competition by other cities such as Buenos Aires
[Andrien, Crisis and decline, p. 28.]
In 1746, a powerful earthquake severely damaged Lima and destroyed Callao, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco.
[Walker, "The upper classes", pp. 53–55.]
In the later half of the 18th century, the ideas of the Enlightenment
on public health and social control shaped the development of the city.
[Ramón, "The script", pp. 173–174.]
During this period, Lima was adversely affected by the Bourbon Reforms as it lost its monopoly on overseas trade and its control over the important mining region of Upper Peru.
[Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 4–5.]
This economic decline made the city's elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate independence.
[Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 23–24.]
A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General José de San Martín managed to land south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on land, Viceroy José de la Serna was forced to evacuate the city on July 1821 to save the Royalist army.
[Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 176–177.]
Fearing a popular uprising and lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San Martín to enter Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his request.
[Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 178–180.]
However, the war was not over; in the next two years the city changed hands several times and suffered exactions from both sides.
left|thumb|The de la Union was Lima's most important street for the first half of the 20th century
]After the war of independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased public and private revenues from guano
exports led to a rapid expansion of the city.
[Klarén, Peru, p. 169.]
The export-led economic expansion also widened the gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest.
[Klarén, Peru, p. 170.]
During the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting public museums, libraries and educational institutions.
[Higgings, Lima, p. 107.]
At the same time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian population; sacking their properties and businesses.
[Klarén, Peru, p. 192.]
After the war, the city underwent a process of renewal and expansion from the 1890s up to the 1920s. During this period, the urban layout was modified by the construction of big avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns.
[Ramón, "The script", pp. 180–182.]
In 1940, an earthquake destroyed most of the city, which at that time was mostly built out of adobe
. In the 1940s, Lima started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the Andean regions of Peru, as rural people sought better opportunities for work and education. The population, estimated at 0.6 million in 1940, reached 1.9M by 1960 and 4.8M by 1980.
[ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Lima Metropolitana perfil socio-demográfico. Retrieved on August 12, 2007]
At the start of this period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by the city's historic center, Callao and Chorrillos; in the following decades settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the east, along the Central Highway, and to the south.
[Dietz, Poverty and problem-solving, p. 35.]
The new migrants, at first confined to slums in downtown Lima, led this expansion through large-scale land invasions, which evolved into shanty towns, known as pueblos jóvenes
[Dietz, Poverty and problem-solving, p. 36.]
thumb|right|Lima seen from |SPOT satellite
]The urban area of Lima covers about . It is located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as above mean sea level. Within the city exist isolated hills which are not connected to the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rimac district, which faces directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth.
Metropolitan Lima has an area of , of which (31%) comprise the actual city and (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends around from north to south and around from west to east. The city center is located inland at the shore of the Rimac river, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be composed of the central 30 out of the 43 districts of Lima Province, corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic Cercado de Lima district. The city is the core of the Lima Metropolitan Area, one of the ten largest metropolitan areas in the Americas. Lima is the second largest city in the world located in a desert, after Cairo
thumb|right|Weather averages for International Airport.
]Lima's climate is mild and comfortable, despite being located in the tropics and in a desert. Although classified as a subtropical, Lima's proximity to the cool waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to temperatures much cooler than those expected for a subtropical desert, and can be classified as a cool desert climate. It is neither cold nor very hot. Temperatures rarely fall below or rise above throughout the entire year. Two distinct seasons can be identified: summer, from December through April; and winter from June through October. May and November are generally transition months, with the warm-to-cool weather transition being more dramatic.
Summers are warm, humid and sunny. Daily temperatures oscillate between lows of to , and highs of to . Skies are generally cloud free, especially during daytime. Occasional coastal fogs during some mornings and high clouds during some afternoons and evenings can be present. Lima summer sunsets are well known for being colorful. As such, they have been labeled by the locals as "cielo de brujas" (Spanish for "sky of witches"), since the sky commonly turns into shades of orange, pink and red around 7 pm. Winter weather is dramatically different. Gray skies, breezy conditions, high humidity and cool temperatures prevail. Long (1-week or more) stretches of dark overcast skies are not uncommon. Persistent morning drizzle occurs occasionally from June through September, coating the streets with a thin layer of water that generally dries out by the early afternoon. Winter temperatures in Lima do not vary much between day and night. They range from lows of to and highs of to , rarely exceeding except in the easternmost districts.
is always very high, particularly in the mornings.
High humidity produces brief morning fog during the early summer and a usually persistent low cloud deck during winter (generally developing in May and persisting all the way into late November or even early December). Predominant onshore flow makes the Lima area one of the cloudiest among the entire Peruvian coast. Lima has only 1284 hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours in July and 179.1 hours in January, exceptionally low values for the latitude.
Winter cloudiness prompts locals to seek for sunshine in Andean valleys located at elevations generally above 500 meters above sea level.
Although relative humidity levels are high, rainfall is very low due to strong atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts on water supply in the city, which originates from wells and from rivers that flow from the Andes
Inland districts receive anywhere between 1 to of rainfall per year, which accumulates mainly during the winter months. Coastal districts receive only 1 to . As previously mentioned, winter precipitation occurs in the form of persistent morning drizzle events. These are locally called 'garúa', 'llovizna' or 'camanchacas'. Summer rain, on the other hand, is infrequent, and occurs in the form of isolated light and brief showers. These generally occur during afternoons and evenings when leftovers from Andean storms arrive from the east. The lack of heavy rainfall arises from high atmospheric stability caused, in term, by the combination of cool waters from semi-permanent coastal upwelling and the presence of the cold Humboldt Current; and warm air aloft associated with the South Pacific anticyclone.
The climate of Lima (as that of most of the Peruvian coast) gets severely disrupted during El Niño events. Water temperatures along the coast, which usually average around , get much warmer (as in 1998 when the water temperature reached ). Air temperatures rise accordingly. Such was the case when Lima hit its all-time record high of .
|date = August 2010}}
thumb|Children at a primary school in de Surco.
]With a municipal population of 7,605,743, and 8,472,935 for the metropolitan area and a population density of as of 2007,
[Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú pp. 29–30, 32, 34.]
Lima ranks as the 27th most populous 'agglomeration' in the world.
[United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Urban Agglomerations 2007. - note, per the source, "Urban agglomerations included in the chart are those of 1 million inhabitants or more in 2007. An agglomeration contains the population within the contours of contiguous territory inhabited at urban levels of residential density without regard to administrative boundaries."]
Its population features a very complex mix of racial and ethnic groups. Mestizos
of mixed Amerindian and European (mostly Spanish) ancestry are the largest ethnic group. European Peruvians are the second largest group. Many are of Spanish or Italian descent; many others are of French, British, German, or Croatian descent.
The third largest group are those of Amerindian descent (mostly Aymara and Quechua). Afro-Peruvians, whose African ancestors were initially brought to the region as slaves, are yet another part of the city's ethnic diversity. There are also numerous Jews of European descent and Middle Easterners. Asians make up a large number of the metropolitan population, especially of Chinese (Cantonese) and Japanese descent, whose ancestors came mostly in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Lima has, by far, the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America
The first settlement in what would become Lima was made up of only 117 housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built at the other side of the Rimac River and in 1610, the first stone bridge was built. Lima then had a population of around 26,000; blacks made up around 40% of the population, and whites made up around 38% of the population.
[ History of Lima. Lima Info.]
By 1748, the white population totaled 16,000-18,000.
[ Colonial Lima according to Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. From Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, A Voyage to South America (1748).]
In 1861, the number of inhabitants surpassed 100,000, and by 1927, this amount was doubled.
left|thumb| in the outskirts of Lima, mostly populated by Andean migrants.
During the early twentieth century, thousands of immigrants came to the city, including a significant number of French, Italians and Germans, many of whom have assimilated to the Peruvian society. They organized in social clubs, and they built their own schools; for example, The American-Peruvian school which is located in Miraflores; the French Alliance (Alianza Francesa de Lima), the notable Lycée Franco-Péruvien and the hospital Maison de Sante;; the British-Peruvian school in Monterrico and also several German-Peruvian schools.They influenced Peruvian cuisine, the Italians in particular exerting a strong influence in the Miraflores and San Isidro areas with their restaurants, called trattorias
A great number of Chinese immigrants, and a lesser amount of Japanese, came to Lima and established themselves in the Barrios Altos neighborhood near downtown Lima. Lima residents refer to their Chinatown as Calle Capon,
and the city's ubiquitous Chifa restaurants a small, sit-down, usually Chinese-run restaurant serving the Peruvian spin on Chinese cuisine can be found by the dozen in this Chinese enclave.
Lima is the industrial and financial center of Peru, and one of the most important financial centers in Latin America.
[Infoplease. Lima. Retrieved on December 8, 2008.]
Today it is home to many national companies. It accounts for more than two thirds of Peru's industrial production
[AttractionGuide. Lima Attractions. Retrieved on December 8, 2008.]
and most of its tertiary sector.
The Metropolitan area, with around 7000 factories,
spearheads the industrial development of the country, thanks to the quantity and quality of the available workforce
, cheap infrastructure and the mostly developed routes and highways in the city. The most relevant industrial sectors are textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are also manufactured and/or processed in Lima.
thumb|300px|right|Financial center of the city in San IsidroIndustrialization began to take hold in Lima in 1930s and by 1950s, through import substitution policies, by 1950 manufacturing made up 14% of the GNP. In the late 1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in Peruvian, and primarily Limean, factories.
The Callao seaport is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in South America, with 75% of the country's imports and 25% of its exports
using it as their entry/departure point. The main export goods leaving the country through Callao are oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee.Lima generates 53% of the GDP of Peru. In 2009, GDP per capita in Lima was over $15,000.
[ pág. 24.]
Most of the foreign companies operating in the country have settled in Lima, which has led to the previously mentioned concentration of economic and financial activity on the city.
There has been a noticeable increase in light industries, services and high technologies. In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in all of South America which was spearheaded by economic policies originating in Lima.
[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2003rank.html CIA Factbook]
The Lima Stock Exchange grew 185.24% in 2006
and in 2007 grew 168.3%,
making it one of the fastest growing stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the Lima Stock Exchange was the most profitable in the world.
The unemployment rate in the metropolitan area is 7.2%.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit
and the Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union Summit were hosted by the city of Lima.
Lima is headquarters to many major banks such as Banco de Crédito del Perú, Interbank, Bank of the Nation, Banco Continental, MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Finaciero, Banco de Comercio, and Credi Scotia. It is also a regional headquarters to Standard Chartered. Major insurance coorperations based in Lima include Rimac Seguros, Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta, and La Positiva.
thumb|300xp|The Palace |Government Palace is the seat of the executive branch
]Lima is the capital city of the Republic of Peru and the department of Lima. As such, it is home to the three branches of the Government of Peru. The executive branch is headquartered in the Government Palace, located in the Plaza Mayor. The legislative branch is headquartered in the Legislative Palace and is home to the Congress of Peru. The Judicial branch is headquartered in the Palace of Justice and is home to the Supreme Court of Peru.
Likewise, all the ministries are located in the city of Lima. In international government, the city of Lima is home to the headquarters of the Andean Community of Nations and the South American Community of Nations, along with other regional and international organizations.
The city is roughly equivalent to the Province of Lima, which is subdivided into 43 districts. The Metropolitan Municipality of Lima is utmost authority of the entire city while each district further has its own local government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality, although a provincial municipality, acts as and has functions similar to a regional government, as it does not belong to any of the 25 regions of Peru.
thumb|The of Justice |Palace of Justice, seat of the judicial branch
The Palace of Justice in Lima is seat of the Supreme Court of Justice the highest judicial court in Peru with jurisdiction over the entire territory of Peru.
Lima is also seat of two of the 28 second highest or Superior Courts of Justice. The first and oldest Superior Court in Lima is the Superior Court of Justice of Lima
belonging to the Judicial District of Lima. Due to the judicial organization of Peru, the highest concentration of courts is located in Lima despite the fact that its judicial district only has jurisdiction over 35 of the 43 districts of Lima.
[ Judicial Power of Peru. Superior Court of Lima. Retrieved 3 December 2008.]
The Superior Court of the Cono Norte
is the second Superior Court located in Lima and is part of the Judicial District of North Lima. This judicial district has jurisdiction over the remaining eight districts all located in northern Lima.
[ Judicial Power of Peru. Superior Court of North Lima. Retrieved 3 December 2008.]
thumb|Paseo de los Heroes Navales
thumb|Bajada Balta in Mira Flores
Lima's architecture is characterized by a mix in styles as reflected from shifts between trends throughout various time periods of the city's history. Examples of early colonial architecture include such structures as the Monastery of San Francisco, the Cathedral of Lima and the Torre Tagle Palace. These constructions are generally influenced by the Spanish baroque,
and Spanish Colonial
styles. After independence, a gradual shift towards the neoclassical and Art Nouveau
styles took place. Many of these constructions were greatly influenced by French architectural styles.
Many government buildings as well as major cultural institutions were contracted in this architectural time period. During 1960s, constructions utilizing the brutalist
style began appearing in Lima due to the military government of Juan Velasco.
Examples of this architecture include the Museum of the Nation and the Ministry of Defense. The 21st century has seen the appearance of glass skyscrapers, particularly around the city's financial district.
Also there are several new architectural and real estate projects.
Lima's urban setting is characterized by lime green-lined streets as well as the abundance of plazas throughout the city. More important streets usually contain wider green areas, and plazas usually contain monuments or statues of historical figures of importance to Peruvian history. upright|thumb|Parque Universitario of the University of San Marcos in downtown Lima.
Parks and gardens
The largest parks of Lima are located near the downtown area such as the Park of the Reserve, Park of the Exposition,
Campo de Marte, and the University Park. The Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex in the world known as the Magical Circuit of Water.
A number of large parks lie outside the city center, including Reducto Park, Pantanos de Villa, El Golf , Parque de las Leyendas (Lima Zoo), El Malecon de Miraflores, and the Golf Los Incas.
The street grid of the city of Lima, is laid out with a system of plazas of which serve a purpose similar to roundabouts or junctions. In addition to this practical purpose, plazas serve as one of Lima's principal green spaces and contain a variety of different types of architecture ranging from monuments to statues, and water fountains.
Society and culture
Strongly influenced by European, Andean
, African and Asian culture, Lima is a melting pot of cultures due to colonization, immigration, and indigenous influences.
The Historic Center of Lima was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. Like many other world capitals, Lima is home to prestigious museums, many of which are world renowned.
Limean cuisine is known to be among the best in the world, and the city is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas
. Lima's gastronomy is a mix of Spanish, Andean
, and Asian culinary traditions.
Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the city, are heavily visited during the summer months. Numerous restaurants, clubs and hotels have been opened in these places to serve the many beachgoers. Lima has a vibrant and active theater scene, as there are many theaters presenting not only classic theater, but also cultural presentations, modern theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances, and theater for children. Lima is home to many important theaters, such as the Municipal Theater, Segura Theater, Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater of the PUCP Cultural Center, and the Yuyachkani Theater.
Known as Peruvian Coastal Spanish, Lima's Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong innotations as found in many other regions of the Spanish-speaking world. It is heavily influenced by the historical Spanish spoken in Castile. Throughout the colonial era, most of the Spanish colonial nobility based in Lima were originally from Castile.
Limean Spanish is also characterized by the lack of voseo
, a trait present in the dialects of many other Latin American countries. This is due to the fact that voseo was primarily used by the lower socioeconomic classes of Spain, a social group that did not begin to appear in Lima until the late colonial era.
Limean Spanish is distinguished by its relative clarity in comparison to other Latin American accents. Limean Spanish has been influenced by a number of immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusians, Chinese and Japanese. It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization
, as well as by Andean Spanish, due to the recent migration from the Andean highlands to Lima.
thumb|The Museum of Art
Lima is home to the highest concentration of museums of the country, the most notable of which are the Museo Nacional de Arqueología Antropología e Historia del Perú
, Museum of Art of Lima, the Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, The Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art, and the Museum of Gold, and the Larco Museum
. These museums mostly focus on art, pre-Columbian cultures, natural history, science and religion.
There's a particularity with the Museum of Italian Art, which is the only museum that shows European art in Peru. thumb|Metallica at Estadio Universidad San Marcos
Lima has become an increasingly important destination for major international acts, including Tokio Hotel, Black Eyed Peas, Paramore, Green Day, The Smashing Pumpkins, Björk, Laura Pausini, The Killers, Stereophonics, Roger Waters, R.E.M., Travis, Iron Maiden, KISS, Oasis, Bryan Adams, Duran Duran, Megadeth, Kylie Minogue, Peter Gabriel, Sarah Brightman, Faith No More, Depeche Mode, Metallica, The Cranberries, Dream Theater, Guns N' Roses, Franz Ferdinand, Aerosmith, Placebo, Green day
-whose performances in venues like Estadio Nacional , Estadio Universidad San Marcos, Jockey Club and "La Explanada" (open field) contiguous to Estadio Monumental "U"- have contributed to rapidly develop the entertainment industry in the Peruvian capital.
| Type = Cultural| Criteria = iv| ID = 500| Region = Latin America and the Caribbean| Year = 1988| Session = 12th| Extension = 1991| Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/500}}As the major point of entry to the country, Lima has developed an important tourism industry, characterized by its historic center, archeological sites, nightlife, museums, art galleries, festivals, and popular traditions. Lima is home to an ample range of restaurants and bars where local as well as international cuisine is served.
The Historic Center of Lima, made up of the districts of Lima and Rimac, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
in 1988 due to its importance during the colonial era leaving a testimony to architectural achievement.
Some examples of this historical colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, Covenant of Santo Domingo
, the Palace of Torre Tagle, and much more.
A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit among tourists. A short jaunt through the central district goes through many churches dating from as early as the 16th and 17th centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral of Lima and the Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by their subterrestrial catacombs.
Both of these churches contain paintings from various schools of art, Sevilian tile, and finely sculpted wood furnishings.
Also notable is the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas, the point of origin for the Lord of Miracles, whose festivities in the month of October constitute the most important religious event in Lima, and a major one of Peru. Some sections of the Lima City Walls still remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from attacks by pirates and privateers.
Beaches are visited during the summer months, which are located along the Pan-American Highway, to the south of the city in districts such as Lurin, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar , San Bartolo and Asia. Many restaurants, nightclubs, lounges, bars, clubs, and hotels have developed in said places to cater to beachgoers.
The suburban districts of Cieneguilla, Pachacamac, and the city of Chosica, are important tourist attractions among locals. Because they are located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in winter months, something that the city of Lima frequently lacks under seasonal fog.
Lima is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas
. A center of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty, Lima has incorporated unique dishes brought from the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors and many waves of immigrants: African, European, Chinese, and Japanese.
This has strongly influenced Lima's cuisine with the incorporation of the immigrant's ingredients and techniques (for example, the Chinese extensive use of rice or the Japanese approach to preparing raw fish. The genres of restaurants in Lima include Creole food
, Chifas, Cebicherias, and Pollerias. Peruvian cuisine, widely represented in Lima, holds various Guinness World Records, for its diversity and quality.
thumb|The Monumental "U" during a match of Peruvian National Soccer Team.
]The city of Lima has varied sports venues for football
, many of which are located within private clubs. A popular sport among Limeans is fronton
, a racquet sport
similar to squash
invented in Lima. The city is home to seven international-class golf
is popular in Lima with many private clubs as well as the Hipódromo de Monterrico horse racing track. The most popular sport in Lima by far is football
with many professional club teams being located in the city.
|Peruvian Institute of Sport||Various||Various||Estadio Nacional |
|Universitario de Deportes||Football||Primera División Peruana||Monumental "U" Stadium|
|Alianza Lima||Football||Primera División Peruana||Alejandro Villanueva Stadium|
|Sporting Cristal||Football||Primera División Peruana||San Martin de Porres Stadium|
|Universidad San Martin de Porres||Football||Primera Division Peruana||San Martin de Porres Stadium|
|Club de Regatas Lima||Various||Various||Regatas Headquarters Chorrillos|
|Real Club Lima||Basketball, Volleyball||Various||San Isidro|
Center of Lima|Central Lima
2. Residential Lima
3. Lima Norte
4. Lima Sur
5. Lima Este
6. Beach areas
]Lima is made up of thirty densely-populated districts, each headed by a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these and the thirteen outer districts of the Lima province.
The city's historic centre is located in the Cercado de Lima district, locally known as simply Lima, or as "El Centro" ("Downtown
"), and it is home to most of the vestiges of Lima's colonial past, the Presidential Palace (), the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima (), and dozens of hotels, some operating and some defunct, that used to cater to the national and international elite.
The upscale San Isidro district is the city's financial center. It is home to many prominent figures such as politicians and celebrities. It is also where the main banks of Peru and branch offices of world banks are headquartered. San Isidro has many parks, including Parque El Olivar, which has olive trees that were brought from Spain during the seventeenth century.
Another upscale district is Miraflores, which has many luxury hotels, shops and restaurants. Miraflores has more parks and green areas in the south of Lima than most other districts. Larcomar, a popular shopping mall and entertainment center built on cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean, featuring bars, dance clubs, movie theaters, cafes, shops, boutiques and galleries, is also located in this district.
La Molina, San Borja and Santiago de Surco, home to the American Embassy and the exclusive Club Polo Lima, are the other three wealthy districts of Lima.
The most densely-populated districts of Lima lie in the northern and southern ends of the city (Spanish: Cono Norte and Cono Sur, respectively), and they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the mid and late 20th century looking for better living standards and economic opportunities, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict with the Shining Path during the late 80s and early 90s. In the case of Cono Norte(North Lima), certain shopping malls like Megaplaza and Royal Plaza have been recently built in the Independencia, which is the most residential neighborhood in the Northern part of Lima. Most of the inhabitants of this area belong to the middle class
Barranco, which borders Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is known as the city's bohemian district, home or once home of many Peruvian writers and intellectuals like Mario Vargas Llosa, Chabuca Granda and Alfredo Bryce Echenique. This district has many acclaimed restaurants, music venues called "peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of coastal Peru (in Spanish, "música criolla"), and beautiful Victorian-style chalets. It along with Miraflores serves as the home to the foreign nightlife scene.
thumb|Mural regarding the foundation of the of San Marcos on May 12, 1551.
] Lima is home to the oldest higher learning institution in the New World, San Marcos University founded in 1551. Home to a range of universities, institutions, and schools, Lima has the highest concentration of institutions of higher learning in the continent and is home to schools with worldwide recognition. Peru itself, is one of the most educated countries in South America. The National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551 during Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) was founded in 1876 by Polish engineer Eduardo de Habich and is the most important engineering school in the country. Other public universities also play key roles in teaching and research, such as the Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (the second largest in the country), the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina where ex-president Alberto Fujimori once taught, and the National University of Callao.
The Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, established in 1917, is the oldest private university. Other private institutions that are located in the city are Universidad del Pacifico, Universidad de Lima, Universidad San Martín de Porres, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Universidad Cientifica del Sur, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas and Universidad Ricardo Palma.
thumb|The Chávez International Airport
]Lima is served by the Jorge Chavez International Airport, located in Callao (LIM). It is the largest airport of the country with the largest amount of domestic and international air traffic. It also serves as a major hub in the Latin American air network. Lima's Jorge Chavez International Airport is the fourth largest air hub in South America. The airport, however it is the base for the largest cargo hub in the continent. Additionally, Lima possesses five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport, and runways in Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo and Chilca.
Lima is connected by highway to every country that borders Peru. Because of its location on the country's central coast, Lima is an important junction in Peru's highway system. Three of the major highways originate in Lima.
- The Northern Panamerican Highway, this highway extends more than to the border with Ecuador connecting the northern districts of Lima with many major cities along the northern Peruvian coast.
- The Central Highway (), this highway connects the eastern districts of Lima with many cities in central Peru. The highway extends with its terminus at the city of Pucallpa near Brazil.
- The Southern Panamerican Highway, this highway connects the southern districts of Lima to cities on the southern coast. The highway extends to the border with Chile.
The proximity of Lima to the port of Callao allows Callao to act as the metropolitan area's foremost port. Callao concentrates nearly all of the maritime transport of the metropolitan area. There is, however, a small port in Lurín whose transit mostly is accounted for by oil tankers due to a refinery being located nearby. Nonetheless, maritime transport inside Lima's city limits is relatively insignificant compared to that of Callao, the nation's leading port and one of Latin America's largest.
Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril Central Andino which runs from Lima through the departments of Junin, Huancavelica, Pasco, and Huanuco.
Major cities along this line include Huancayo, La Oroya, Huancavelica, and Cerro de Pasco. Another inactive line runs from Lima northwards to the city of Huacho.
The urban transport system is composed of over 652 transit routes
Public transport (2010) Metropolitano
The Metropolitan Transportation System is a public transportation system which plans to integrate the Independent Corridor of Mass-Transit Buses known by its Spanish initials as (COSAC 1). This system plans to link the principal points of the Lima Metropolitan Area and the first phase of this project is already in development with the construction of a thirty three km line from Comas to Chorrillos.thumb|The Metro mass transit system
] It began commercial operations on July 28th, 2010. This system is similar to the TransMilenio of Bogotá
, known as colectivos, render express service on some major roads of the Lima Metropolitan Area. The colectivos signal their specific destination with a sign on the their windshield. Their routes are not generally publicitized but are understood by frequent users. The cost is generally higher than public transport however they cover greater distances at greater speeds due to the lack of stops.
The Lima Metro, an above ground mass transit system, is under construction and one line is in construction while six are in planning phase. Line 1's extension to the city's center is currently under construction, linking Villa el Salvador with downtown Lima in a matter of only forty minutes, a trip which currently lasts one hour and forty minutes with the current public transport system. It is scheduled to open July 2011.
thumb|The Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica
Taxis in the city are relatively cheap. There are no meters so drivers are told the desired destination and the fare is agreed upon before the passenger enters the taxi. Taxis vary in sizes from small four door compacts to large vans. They are virtually everywhere, accounting for a large part of the car stock. In many cases they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the windshield. Additionally, there are several companies that provide taxi service on-call.
Eighty percent of the city's history having occurred during the pre-automobile era, Lima's road network is based mostly on large divided avenues rather than freeways. In recent times however, Lima has developed a freeway network now made up of nine freeways which are, the Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche, and the Autopista Ramiro Priale.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Lima is twinned with:
[Sister Cities International, Online Directory: Peru, Americas. Retrieved July 14, 2007.]
- Arequipa, Peru
- Cusco, Peru
- Piura, Peru
- New York City, United States
- Los Angeles, United States
- Austin, United States, since 1981
- Cleveland, United States
- Miami, United States
- Stamford, United States
- Iperu, tourist information and assistance
- Tourism in Peru
- Lima Metropolitan Area
- List of people from Lima
- List of districts and neighborhoods of Lima
- List of sites of interest in the Lima Metropolitan area
- Atmospheric water extraction
- Largest cities in the Americas
- Nota etimológica: El topónimo Lima, Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
- Lima Monumento Histórico, Margarita Cubillas Soriano, Lima, 1996
- Andrien, Kenneth. Crisis and decline: the Viceroyalty of Peru in the seventeenth century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8263-0791-4
- Anna, Timothy. The fall of the royal government in Peru. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8032-1004-3
- Conlee, Christina, Jalh Dulanto, Carol Mackay and Charles Stanish. "Late Prehispanic sociopolitical complexity". In Helaine Silverman (ed.), Andean archaeology. Malden: Blackwell, 2004, pp. 209–236. ISBN 0-631-23400-4
- Dietz, Henry. Poverty and problem-solving under military rule: the urban poor in Lima, Peru. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980. ISBN 0-292-76460-X
- Hemming, John. The conquest of the Incas. London: Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 0-333-51794-6
- Higgings, James. Lima. A cultural history. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517891-2
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Lima Metropolitana perfil socio-demográfico. Lima: INEI, 1996.
- Klarén, Peter. Peru: society and nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-506928-5
- Ramón, Gabriel. "The script of urban surgery: Lima, 1850–1940". In Arturo Almandoz (ed.), Planning Latin America's capital cities, 1850–1950. New York: Routledge, 2002, pp. 170–192. ISBN 0-415-27265-3
- Walker, Charles. "The upper classes and their upper stories: architecture and the aftermath of the Lima earthquake of 1746". Hispanic American Historical Review 83 (1): 53–82 (February 2003).
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