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Occupational stress

    '''Occupational Stress'''

    What is occupational Stress

    Stress has a number of dictionary definitions Stress is defined in terms of its physical and physiological effects on a person (or thing) Stress is mental physical or emotional strain or tension or it is a situation or factor that can cause this (http://dictionaryreferencecom) Within an organization there are many causes of stress Occupational stress occurs when there is a discrepancy between the demands of the environment/workplace and an individual’s ability to carry out and complete these demands (Henry Agolla 2008) Oftentimes a stressor can lead the body to have a physiological which in turn will result on a strain on a person physically as well as mentally One of the main causes of occupational stress is work overload Occupational stress is oftentimes caused by an increased workload without the addition of employees to take on that additional work Instead the increased amount of work is given to the current employees to finish in the same time span that they would be asked to finish their regular or standard workload

    Causes

    Some scholars note that an increase in workload a hostile work environment downsizing and shift work can result in occupational stress (Brynien , Igoe 2006) Oftentimes workloads remain immense although and employee does his or her best to complete them If there isn’t an increase in the hiring of employees to help with increased workloads stress may be felt The high demand and time pressures contribute to the stress (Brynien , Igoe 2006) Anytime there is privatizing of a company downsizing might occur When downsizing occurs employees are laid off or fired Those who still have their jobs have to worry about whether they will be next on the list of employees to be laid off Those who have been laid off have to deal with the stressful situation of finding another job If superiors aren’t supportive discriminate towards certain employees while favoring other do no offer encouragement or create a hostile work environment this can cause stress for a an employee Interpersonal conflicts within the workplace uncertainty about the stability of job security and underutilized job abilities are also cause for occupational stress

    Effects

    Physical symptoms that may occur because of occupational stress include fatigue headache stomach problems muscles aches and pains chronic mild illness sleep disturbances and eating disorders Psychological and behavioral problems that may develop include anxiety irritability alcohol and drug use feeling powerless and low morale (Brynien Igoe 2006) If exposure to stressors in the workplace is prolonged then chronic health problems can occur including stroke Studies among the Japanese population specifically showed a more than 2-fold increase in the risk of total stroke among men with job strain (combination of high job demand and low job control) (Ishikawa Kario 2009) Along with the risk of stroke comes high blood pressure and immune system dysfunction Prolonged occupational stress can lead to occupational burnout

    Stress Models

    The demand control model and the effort reward imbalance model are two work stress models that helps to identify particular job characteristics important for employee well being ( Jonge Landbergis 2005) The DC model predicts that the most adverse health effects of psychological strain occur when job demands are high and decision latitude is low The ERI model assumes that emotional distress and adverse health effects occur when there is an imbalance between efforts and occupational rewards ( Jonge Landbergis 2005) These models may be able to help employees and manager understand the correlation between job demand and high emotional and physiological distress If so more preventative actions can be taken

    See also

    • Occupational Burnout
    • Stress Management

    References

    1Butts M.; DeJoy D.; Schaffer B.; Wilson M. & Vandenberg R.( Apr 2009) Individual Reactions to High Involvement Work Processes: Investigating the Role of Empowerment and Perceived Organizational Support Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 14(2) 122-136
    2Cooper C., Dewe P. & Michael P. (2001) Organizational Communication: A Review and Critique SAGE
    3Dov Zohar (1999) When Things Go : The Effect of Daily Work Hassles on Effort Exertion and Negative Mood Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology72(3) 265-283
    4http://dictionaryreferencecom Retrieved May 4, 2009 from http://dictionaryreferencecom/browse/stress
    5Ishikawa S; Kario K; Kayaba K & Tsutsumi A Akizumi (2009) Prospective Study on Occupational Stress and Risk of Stroke Archives of Internal Medicine 169(1) 56. Retrieved May 6, 2009 from American Medical Association database
    6Jonge J ; Landsbergis P &Vegchel N, (2005) Occupational Stress in (inter)action: The Interplay Between Job Demands and Job Resources Journal of Organizational Behavior 26(5) 535-560 Retrieved May 6, 2009 from ABI/INFORM Global database
    7Kossek E. E., & Ozeki C. (1998) Work–family conflict policies and the job–life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior–human resources research Journal of Applied Psychology 83, 139–149
    8Minas C.( Feb 2000) Stress at Work: a Sociological Perspective: The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 37(1) 119
    9Ongori H. & Agolla J. (Dec 2008) Occupational Stress in Organizations Journal of Management Research8(3)123-135
    10SaxbyC (June 2008) Barriers to Communication Evansville Business Journal 1-2
    11Temple H. & Gillespie B. (February 2009) Taking Charge of Work and Life ABA Journal 95(2) 31-32