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Rockefeller Foundation

    Image:Rflogo1.jpg|rightThe '''Rockefeller Foundation''' (RF) is a charitable organization based in New York City and is the preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family It was founded by John D. Rockefeller ("Senior") and his principal advisor Frederick T. Gates along with the close involvement of his son John D. Rockefeller Jr ("Junior") Its central mission is to "promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world"
    The current president of the foundation is Judith Rodin former president of University of Pennsylvania
    Rockefeller had the initial idea to set up a major charitable foundation in 1901 but it was not until 1906 that Frederick Gates seriously revived the idea It would not be the first foundation in America but it brought to the concept unprecedented scale and scope They applied for a federal charter for a tax-exempt foundation in the US Senate in 1910 but coupled with the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment the end result was that the family withdrew the bill from Congress to seek a state charter
    On May 14, 1913 New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation - two years after the Carnegie Corporation had been granted its charter - with son Junior becoming the first president and endowed with an unprecedented $100 million in its first year; the giving of which insulated a large part of Senior's fortune from inheritance taxes At the outset the foundation was uniquely global in its approach concentrating for its first decade entirely on public health and medical education
    In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission which expanded the work of the Sanitary Commission worldwide working against various diseases in fifty-two countries on six continents and twenty-nine islands bringing international recognition of the need for public health and environmental sanitation Its early field research on hookworm malaria and yellow fever provided the basic techniques to control these diseases and established the pattern of modern public health services
    The Commission established and endowed the world's first school of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University and later at Harvard and then spent more than $25 million in developing other public health schools in the US and in twenty-one foreign countries - establishing America as the world leader in medicine and scientific research
    In 1915 the foundation set up the China Medical Board that established the first public health university in that country the Peking Union Medical College which opened in 1921; this was subsequently nationalised when the Communists took over the country in 1949
    Through the years the foundation has expanded in scope and given financial assistance to and supported US foreign policy industrial relations government and public administration higher education scientific advancement agriculture and increasing food production social research eugenics the arts and many other fields all over the world
    Its agricultural development program in Mexico in close collaboration with the Ford Foundation led to what has been called the Green Revolution costing around $600 million which brought new farming technology and increased productivity to Latin America and Asia in the 1940s '50s and '60s In the 1990's the foundation shifted its agriculture work and emphasis to Africa and in 2006 it joined with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in a $150 million effort to fight hunger in the continent through improved agricultural productivity
    It has also provided significant funding for the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines Thousands of scientists and scholars from all over the world have received foundation fellowships and scholarships for advanced study
    The foundation helped to found the Social Science Research Council and has provided significant support for such organizations as the National Bureau of Economic Research the Brookings Institution the Council on Foreign Relations and Russian Institute at Columbia University In the arts it has helped establish or support the Stratford Shakespearean Festival in Ontario Canada and the American Shakespeare Festival in Stratford Connecticut; Arena Stage in Washington DC; Karamu House in Cleveland Ohio; and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York
    The market value of the foundation's endowment was estimated at $31 billion at year-end 2001

    Further reading

    • Berman Edward H. The Ideology of Philanthropy: The influence of the Carnegie Ford and Rockefeller foundations on American foreign policy New : State University of New York Press 1983
    • Brown E. Richard Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America Berkeley: University of California Press 1979
    • Chernow Ron Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller Sr : Warner Books 1998
    • Dowie Mark American Foundations: An Investigative History Boston: The MIT Press 2001
    • Fosdick Raymond B., The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation Transaction Publishers 1989
    • Harr John Ensor and Peter J. Johnson The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family New : Charles Scribner's Sons 1988
    • Harr John Ensor and Peter J. Johnson The Rockefeller : An American Family in Public and in Private New : Charles Scribner's Sons 1991
    • Jonas Gerald The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modern Science New : WW Norton and Co 1989
    • Kay Lily The Molecular Vision of : Caltech the Rockefeller Foundation and the Rise of the New Biology New : Oxford University Press 1993
    • Nielsen Waldemar The Big Foundations New : Cambridge University Press 1973

    See also

    • Philanthropy
    • Rockefeller family
    • David Rockefeller
    • Nelson Rockefeller
    • John D. Rockefeller
    • John D. Rockefeller Jr
    • John D. Rockefeller 3rd
    • Rockefeller Brothers Fund
    • Rockefeller Family Fund
    • Ford Foundation
    • Carnegie Corporation
    • Frederick T. Gates
    • List of wealthiest foundations

    External links