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Royal Engineers

    The '''Corps of Royal Engineers''' (RE) commonly known as the '''Sappers''' is one of the Structure of the British Army|corps of the British Army It provides combat engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces
    The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent The corps is divided into several regiments barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and Germany

    History

    The Royal Engineers trace their origins back to the military engineers brought to England by William the Conqueror and claim over 900 years of unbroken service to the crown Engineers have always served in the armies of the Crown however the origins of the modern corps along with those of the Royal Artillery lie in the Board of Ordnance established in the 15th century In 1717 the Board established a Corps of Engineers consisting entirely of commissioned officers The hard work was done by the Artificer Companies made up of contracted civilian artisans and labourers In 1782 a Soldier Artificer Company was established for service in Gibraltar and this was the first instance of non-commissioned military engineers In 1787 the Corps of Engineers was granted the Royal prefix and adopted its current name and in the same year a Corps of Royal Military Artificers was formed consisting of non-commissioned officers and privates to be officered by the RE. Ten years later the Gibraltar company which had remained separate was absorbed and in 1812 the name was changed to the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners
    In 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished and authority over the Royal Engineers Royal Sappers and Miners and Royal Artillery was transferred to the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces thus uniting them with the rest of the Army The following year the Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners became a unified corps as the Corps of Royal Engineers In 1862 the corps also absorbed the British officers and men of the engineer corps of the British East Company|East India Company]
    The Corps has no battle honours but its motto Ubique (Everywhere) awarded by King William IV in 1832 signifies that it has seen action in all the major conflicts of the British Army A second motto is Quo Fas et Gloria ducunt (Where right and glory lead)
    The Royal Engineers museum is in Gillingham in Kent

    Personnel

    All members of the Royal Engineers are trained combat engineers and all sappers (privates) and non-commissioned officers also have another trade Women are eligible for all Royal Engineers specialities
    Sappers can join the Royal Engineers in one of the following trades:
    • Bricklayer and Concretor
    • Building and Structural Finisher
    • Carpenter and Joiner
    • Command Communications and Information Systems Specialist
    • Construction Materials Technician
    • Draughtsman (Design)
    • Draughtsman (Electrical and Mechanical)
    • Electrician
    • Fabricator (Welder)
    • Fitter (Air Conditioning and Refrigeration)
    • General Fitter
    • Geographical Data Technician
    • Geographical Production Technician
    • Geographical Terrain Analyst
    • Heating and Plumbing Engineer
    • Plant Operator Mechanic
    • Specialist Equipment Driver/Operator
    • Surveyor (Engineering)

    Later sappers can specialise in further trades and specialities including:
    • Amphibious Engineer
    • Armoured Engineer
    • Bomb Disposal Engineer
    • Clerk of Works (Construction)
    • Clerk of Works (Electrical)
    • Clerk of Works (Mechanical)
    • Commando Engineer
    • Diver
    • Military Plant Foreman
    • Parachute Engineer
    • Regimental Signals Instructor

    Senior NCOs can be commissioned as Garrison Engineers (Construction Electrical or Mechanical)

    Royal Engineers units

    The Royal Engineers comprises units of both the Regular Army and the Territorial Army There are also two higher engineer formations:
    • 12 (Air Support) Engineer Brigade (39 71 and 73 Regiments)
    • 29 (Corps Support) Engineer Brigade (RMRE 75 and 101 Regiments)

    Regular Army



    • 23 Engineer Regiment (Air Assault)
      • 9 Parachute Squadron (9 PARA)
      • 12 (Nova Scotia) Headquarters Squadron (Air Assault)
      • 51 Field Squadron (Air Assault)
      • 61 Field Support Squadron (Air Assault)



    • 28 Engineer Regiment (Amphibious/Field)
      • 23 Amphibious Engineer Squadron
      • 42 Field Squadron
      • 45 Field Support Squadron
      • 64 Headquarters Squadron
      • 65 Field Support Squadron


    • 33 Engineer Regiment (Explosive Ordnance Disposal)
      • 21 Field Squadron (EOD)
      • 22 Headquarters and Support Squadron (EOD)
      • 49 Field Squadron (EOD)
      • 58 Field Squadron (EOD)


    • 36 Engineer Regiment (Field)
      • 20 Field Squadron
      • 50 Headquarters Squadron
      • 69 Gurkha Field Squadron
      • 70 Gurkha Field Support Squadron


    • 39 Engineer Regiment (Air Support)
      • 34 Field Squadron (Air Support)
      • 48 Field Squadron (Air Support)
      • 53 Field Squadron (Air Support)
      • 60 Headquarters and Support Squadron (Air Support)

    • 42 Engineer Regiment (Geographic)
      • 13 Geographic Squadron
      • 14 Geographic Squadron
      • 16 Survey Support Squadron
      • Royal School of Military Survey

    • 59 Independent Commando Squadron Royal Engineers

    • 62 Cyprus Support Squadron Royal Engineers

    • Royal School of Military Engineering
      • Combat Engineer School
        • 3 Royal School of Military Engineering Regiment
          • 55 Training Squadron
          • 63 Training Support Squadron
          • 67 Training Squadron
        • Instructor Troop
        • Battlefield Engineering Wing
          • United Kingdom Mine Information and Training Centre
        • Communications Training Wing
      • Construction Engineer School
        • 1 Royal School of Military Engineering Regiment
        • Command Wing
        • Civil Engineering Wing
        • Electrical and Mechanical Wing
        • National Search Centre
      • Defence Explosive Ordnance Disposal School
    • Military Works Force
      • HQ Works Group
        • 530 Specialist Team Royal Engineers (STRE)
        • Royal Engineers Specialist Advisory Team (RESAT)
        • Technical Information Centre Royal Engineers
      • 62 Works Group
        • 519 STRE
        • 523 STRE
        • 521 STRE
      • 63 Works Group
        • 518 STRE
        • 522 STRE
        • 528 STRE
      • 64 Works Group
        • 524 STRE
        • 527 STRE
        • 516 STRE
        • 517 STRE
    • Royal Engineers Diver Training Wing Defence School]

    • 28 Training Squadron Army Training Regiment

    • Band of the Corps of Royal Engineers

    NB: As part of the restructuring of the armed forces in 2004 it was announced that the engineering support for 3 Commando Brigade would be increased to a full regiment with 24 (Commando) Engineer Regiment to be formed

    Territorial Army


    • 71 Engineer Regiment (Volunteers) (Air Support)
      • 72 (Tyne Electrical Engineers) Field Squadron (Air Support) [5]
      • 102 (Clyde) Field Squadron (Air Support) Bridge
      • 117 (Highland) Headquarters and Support Squadron Leuchars

    • 72 Engineer Regiment (Volunteers) (Air Support)
      • 106 (West Riding) Field Squadron (Air Support) [6]
      • 129 Headquarters and Support Squadron [7]
      • 350 Field Squadron (Air Support) [8]
      • 575 (Sherwood Foresters) Field Squadron (Air Support) [9]
      • The Jersey Field Squadron Helier

    • 75 Engineer Regiment (Volunteers) (Field)
      • 107 (Lancashire and Cheshire) Field Squadron Helens
      • 125 (Staffordshire) Field Support Squadron [10]
      • 143 Plant Squadron [11]
      • 201 Headquarters Squadron [12]

    • 101 Engineer Regiment (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) (Volunteers)



    • Engineer and Logistic Staff Corps (Volunteers)


    Successor units

    Several units have been formed from the Royal Engineers
    • The Air Battalion Royal Engineers (formed 1911) was the precursor of the Royal Flying Corps (formed 1912) which evolved into the Royal Air Force in 1918
    • The Telegraph Battalion Royal Engineers became the Royal Engineers Signals Service which in turn became the independent Royal Corps of Signals in 1920
    • The Royal Engineers were responsible for railway and inland waterway transport port operations and movement control until 1965 when these functions were transferred to the new Royal Corps of Transport (See also Railway Operating Division)
    • In 1908 the Army Postal Corps (formed in 1882) and the Royal Engineers Telegraph Reserve (formed in 1884) amalgamated to form the Royal Engineers Postal Section This later became the Army Postal and Courier Service and remained part of the RE until the formation of the Royal Logistic Corps in 1993

    Decorations

    Victoria Cross

    The following Royal Engineers have been awarded the Victoria Cross (VC) the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces
    • Adam Archibald 1918 Ors France
    • Fenton John Aylmer 1891 Nilt Fort India
    • Mark Sever Bell 1874 Battle Of Ordashu Ashanti (now Ghana)
    • John Rouse Merriott Chard 1879 Rorke's Drift South Africa
    • Brett Mackay Cloutman 1918 Pont-Sur-Sambre France
    • Clifford Coffin 1917 Westhoek Belgium
    • James Morris Colquhoun Colvin 1897 Mohmand Valley India
    • James Lennox Dawson 1915 Hohenzollern Redoubt France
    • Robert James Thomas Digby-Jones 1900 Ladysmith South Africa
    • Thomas Frank Durrant 1942 St Nazaire France
    • Howard Craufurd Elphinstone 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • George de Cardonnel Elmsall Findlay 1918 Catillon France
    • Gerald Graham 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • William Hackett 1916 Givenchy France
    • Reginald Clare Hart 1879 Bazar Valley Afghanistan
    • Charles Alfred Jarvis 1914 Jemappes Belgium
    • Frederick Henry Johnson 1915 Hill 70 France
    • William Henry Johnston 1914 Missy France
    • Frank Howard Kirby 1900 Delagoa Bay Railway South Africa
    • Cecil Leonard Knox 1918 Tugny France
    • Edward Pemberton Leach 1879 Maidanah Afghanistan
    • Peter Leitch 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • William James Lendrim 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • Wilbraham Oates Lennox 1854 Sebastopol Crimea
    • Henry MacDonald 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • Cyril Gordon Martin 1915 Spanbroek Molen Belgium
    • James McPhie 1918 Aubencheul-Au-Bac France
    • Philip Neame 1914 Neuve Chapelle France
    • John Perie 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • Claude Raymond 1945 Talaku Burma (now Myanmar)
    • John Ross 1855 Sebastopol Crimea
    • Michael Sleavon 1858 Jhansi India
    • Arnold Horace Santo Waters 1918 Ors France
    • Thomas Colclough Watson 1897 Mamund Valley India
    • Theodore Wright 1914 Mons Belgium

    External link