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São José dos Campos

    Image:panoramica2_p.jpg|framed|right|Skyline of São José dos Campos

    São José dos Campos is a major city in the state of São Paulo Brazil and one of most important industrial and research centers in Latin America
    It is located in the Vale do Paraíba between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro
    According to a 1999 UN study São José dos Campos was rated one of the top 25 Brazilian cities for quality of life With its high per capita income long life expectancy and high level of infrastructure São José dos Campos is a safe and secure city that offers a wide variety of stores and services
    São José dos Campos São Paulo State Brazil


    (Flag of São José dos Campos) (Coat of Arms of São José dos Campos)
    Speaker of City Council Dilermando Dié (PSDB)
    Mayor Eduardo Cury (PSDB)
    Latitude:
    Longitude:
    22°10'46" N
    45°53'13" W
    Land area 11022 km²
    Population City
    2005 est
    600089

    History

    The beginning

    The territory of São José was initially occupied by a cattle farm created through a concession of settlements around 1590 after a request of Jesuits This farm was located on the banks of the Rio Comprido the natural division between São José and Jacareí today
    The farm was actually a trick used by the Jesuits to hide a religious mission from the Portuguese expedition leaders the Bandeirantes who were Native hunters
    On 10th September 1611 a law which regulated the settlement of Indian communities by the Jesuits recognized the farm as mission This upset the farmers who needed the Natives as labor The conflict led to the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1640 from the region and the consequent extinction of the mission and the dispersion of the inhabitants
    However after few years the Jesuits reestablished a new setlement about 15 km from the northeast of the old village where today the current city´s downtown is found There was a privileged view from the higher new place guaranteeing greater security against invasions as well as flooding Again despite being a new mission it was officially treated as a cattle farm
    The initial urban organization of the this future village is attributed to the Jesuit priest Manoel de Leão whose main occupation was really to be an administrator Being in São Paulo since 1663 he had found himself in this remote farm In 1692 the settlement was called Residência do Paraíba do Sul and in 1696 the name was Residência de São José
    At the beginning of the gold mining economic cycle the settlement goes through serious difficulties due to the exit of labor to the mines After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Brazil in 1759 all the religious order’s assets such as farms colleges and villages were taken under the Portuguese Crown’s custody The Monarchy gave power to the governor D. Luis Antonio de Souza Botelho Mourão who turn these new properties productive The governor requested successfully authorization from the Viceroy to create parishes and small towns On 27th July 1767 the community reached the official status of village whose name Vila de São José do Paraíba was formalized But for many years it maintained the same rural characteristics The main difficulty was the fact that the Estrada Real (Royal Road) passed by its limits far from the village

    Cotton and coffee

    In the middle of the 19th Century the Vila de São José do Paraíba had demonstrated some signs of economic growth through the development of agriculture Cotton evolved rapidly in the region The production reached a peak in 1864 In the same year on 22 April the village was elevated to status of town And in 1871 finally the town acquires the current name of São José dos Campos followed by the creation of a judiciary district in 1872 Almost simultaneously there is the development of coffee crops in the Paraíba Valley which starts to take off from 1870 counting also on the participation of São José
    However it was in the year 1886 having support from the railroad which was opened in 1877 that coffee production in São José reached its peak - even though this crop started to decay in the region - managing to run steady until the 1930's

    Hydro-mineral retreat and industrialization

    The call for the municipality of São José dos Campos for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis by sanatoriums became noticed at the beginning of last century due to its supposedly favorable climate conditions


    São José dos Campos
    Population since 1940

    1940 36279
    1950 44804
    1960 77533
    1970 148332
    1980 287513
    1991 442370
    2000 539313
    2002 est 559710
    2004 est 589050
    2005 est 600089
    However only in 1935 when the municipality was transformed into a hydro-mineral retreat did São José begin to get official resources which could be applied in the health area With the advent of antibiotics in the 1940s tuberculosis begins to be treated anywhere thus ending the healthcare advantage carried out by São José whereas the establishment of industries was about just to start
    The industrialization process of the municipality takes hold from the installation of the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center in 1950's and also with the opening of the Presidente Dutra Highway (BR-116) thus making possible a faster connection between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and cutting into the urban area of São José dos Campos
    Altogether these factors allowed the municipality to make strides towards fulfilling its scientific and technological potential

    Geographic information and climate

    • total area: 11022 km² (about 425 miles²)
    • geographical coordinates:
      • 22º10'46" S
      • 45º53'13" W

    • Municipal Altitudes 550 X 2082 – City 550/690 average of 660m

    The climate in the Koeppen classification is of type Cwa (humid subtropical with a dry season in winter)The greatest precipitation occurs from December to March In summer the average maximum temperature is 29 °C and in winter the average minimum temperature is 12°C The average annual temperature is close to 20 °C

    Demographics

    • estimated population (IBGE 2005): 600089 inhabitants
    • Demographic Density (2000) 48901 inhab/km2

    Administration and political division

    The municipality is comprised by three districts: São José dos Campos - the city itself (also the seat) Eugênio de Melo and São Francisco Xavier The last one is known by its natural sites and ecotourismThe district of São José dos Campos is also subdivided in 4 administration zones: Center North (Jardim Telespark) South (Parque Industrial Jardim Satélite Dom Pedro I e IICampo dos Alemães) and East (Vila Industrial)
    The State of São Paulo is divided politically and administratively into 11 regions São José dos Campos is the capital of the 3rd Administrative Region (North Coast and Paraíba Valley)
    São José dos Campos has a "strong mayor" system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers as it is in all municipalities in Brazil The mayor is elected to a four-year term by universal voting The City Council is elected every four years with the mayor The current mayor is Eduardo Cury from PSDB elected in 2004

    City structure

    Leisure and services

    • Approximately 50 bank branches
    • 19 movie theaters
    • 5 sports and health clubs
    • 6 hotels rated 3 or 4 stars
    • 2 theaters including one inside the UNIVAP - Universidade do Vale do Paraiba
    • 2 parks and a plant nursery
    • 4 big malls and 1 under construction and other many smaller malls
    • 2 expo pavilions
    • 1 soccer stadium home to São José Esporte Clube

    Education and research centers

    São José dos Campos is an important research center in Brazil The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research has its headquarters there It coordenates intensive research and development in areas such as Earth observation space sciences and space technologies Also the Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center has its facilities in the city The city holds:
    • 5 universities and colleges:
      • UNIP - Universidade Paulista
      • UNIVAP - Universidade do Vale do Paraíba
      • Faap - Fundação Alvares Penteado
      • Unesp -Universidade do Estado de São Paulo
      • ITA - Aeronautics Technological Institute
    • 2 research centers:
      • INPE
      • CTA
    • 3 technical schools:
      • ETEP - Escola Técnica Everardo Passos
      • IBTA
      • Expoente
    • 53 secondary schools 54 primary schools and 109 preschools

    Communications


    Transportation

    • 2 bus stations
    • 1 airport - code: SJK
    • 1 railway station administered by MRS Logística

    Economy

    Cut through by Presidente Dutra Highway which links it to the main economical centers of the country São José dos Campos is a city that continuously tries to develop its structure and technology improving the quality of life of its citizens
    High and positive economy indicators show that this municipality has a great share in the state and in the country's economy In 2002 the municipality had the ninth gross national product in the country and it was the second exporter only to the city of São Paulo
    It is an important manufacturing center and holds a large array of industriesOver 670 industries are in the municipality The three main industries are automotive oil/petrochemical and aerospace There are significant pharmaceutical consumer durables chemical and telecommunication companies in the city
    It is also known as the "Brazilian aeronautics capital" because it is home to one of the biggest regional aviation aircraft manufacturers in the world Embraer
    But since the 1990's the local economy has been evolving towards a different direction The manufacturing economy has been downsized or replaced by tertiary and quartenary sectors of industries
    For instance the Entrepreneurial District of Chacaras Reunidas concentrates companies of micro small and medium size which are mainly the result of downsizing from old large local industries Yet there are industries both they provide service as wellNew technological parks and business incubators have been created - within universities or industrial facilities - or are in project A old factory became a new shopping mall Commerce has boomed in the last years Serving a population of approximately two million inhabitants the city is the the regional hub for shopping and services for the Vale do Paraíba the northern coast of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais
    See also major companies in São José dos Campos area

    External links

    Sources

    The history and economy sections were provided in a great extent by the official site of The City Hall of São Jose dos Campos therefore being public information Population numbers were provided by IBGE