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Social solidarity

    '''Social solidarity''' refers to the integration and degree and type of integration shown by a society or group''Collins Dictionary of Sociology'' p621 It refers to the ties in a society - social relations - that bind people to one another Solidarity is commonly associated with political socialism being seen as the driving force and defining temperament behind the ideal classless work force
    What forms the basis of solidarity varies between societies In simple societies it may be mainly based around kinship and shared values In more complex societies there are various theories as to what contributes the sense of social solidarity

    Durkheim

    Émile Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical" and "organic solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies in The Division of Labour (1893) Mechanical solidarity comes from homogeneity of individuals when people feel connected through similar work educational and religious training and lifestyle Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between peopleCollins Dictionary of Sociology p405-6
    The two types of solidarity can be distinguished by morphological and demographic features type of norms in existence and the intensity and content of the conscience collective
    Mechanical and organic solidarity Collins Dictionary of Sociology p406 adapted from S. Lukes Emile Durkheim: His life and Work (1973) London:Allen Lane
    FeatureMechanical solidarityOrganic solidarity
    Morphological (structural) basis Based on resemblances (predominant in less in advanced societies)
    Segmental type (first clan-based later territorial)
    Little interdependence (social bonds relatively weak)
    Relatively low volume of population
    Relatively low material and normal density
    Based on division of labour (predominately in more advanced societies)
    Organised type (fusion of markets and growth of cities)
    Much interdependency (social bonds relatively strong)
    Relatively high volume of population
    Relatively high material and moral density
    Types of norms (typified by law) Rules with repressive sanctions
    Prevalence of penal law law Rules with restitutive sanctions
    Prevalence of cooperative law (civil commercial procedural administrative and constitutional law)
    Formal features of conscience collective High volume
    High intensity
    High determinateness
    Collective authority absolute
    Low volume
    Low intensity
    Low determinateness
    More room for individual initiative and reflection
    Content of conscience collective Highly religions
    Transcendental (superior to human interests and beyond discussion
    Attaching supreme value to society and interests of society as a whole
    Concrete and specific
    Increasingly secular
    Human-orientated (concerned with human interests and open to discussion
    Attaching supreme value to individual dignity equality of opportunity work ethic and social justice
    Abstract and general

    Notes

    References