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Streptobacillus

    '''''Streptobacillus''''' is a genus of aerobic organism|aerobic gram-negative facultative anaerobe bacterium|bacteria which grow in culture as rods in chains
    Species associated with infection - S moniliformis
    Associated infections - rat fever] Haverhill fever
    Reported susceptibilities and therapies - penicillin erythromycin
    Notes - Spirillum minus is also an agent of rat bite fever
    Diseases: Rat-bite fever which is characterized by wound inflammation fever chills headache vomiting muscle pain arthritis rash and bacteremia and by weight loss and diarrhea in children
    Diseases: Haverhill fever which is characterized by fever rash chills headache vomiting muscle pain arthritis and bacteremia and by weight loss and diarrhea in children
    CommentaryRat bite fever is caused by either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minor The former is usually the cause in the United States The later usually is slower in onset but accompanied by suppuration of the wound Suppuration is usually missing when S moniliformis is the cause The incidence of rat-bite fever is highest in urban areas with poor sanitation where the rat population is high While the disease is usually caused by a bite it can also occur from close contact with rodents or ingestion of contaminated food or water The latter is known as Haverhill fever The disease starts with chills and fever accompanied by headache vomiting and muscle pain A rash and arthritis develop 2-4 days after the initial onset As these symptoms are common to many febrile diseases this is often classified as a fever of unknown origin (FUO) If untreated endocarditis can occur with death in approximately 10% of cases
    References - Hagelskjaer L., Sorensen I., Randers E. (1998) Streptobacillus moniliformis infection: 2 cases and a literature review Scand J. infect Dis 30, 309-311

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