• 107328  Infos

Taxonomic rank

    Taxonomic rank (rank, category, taxonomic category) is abstract term used in taxonomy used in scientific classification of organism. Taxonomic rank indicates the level of taxon in taxonomic hierarchy. Taxons ranked in certain taxonomic ranks are real groups of real organisms at real classification level.
    Definition of taxonomic rank (there called only a rank) in International Code of Zoological Nomenclature:

    History

    Carl Linnaeus devised Linnaean taxonomy and he used five ranks: class, order, genus, species, and variety.
    Today, nomenclature is regulated by Nomenclature Codes, which allows names divided into exactly defined ranks. Despite this there are slightly different ranks for zoology and different ranks for botany.

    Ranks in zoology and in botany

    There are definition of following taxonomic ranks in International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: superfamily, family, subfamily, tribe, subtribe, genus, subgenus, species, subspecies.
    There are definition of following taxonomic ranks in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature: kingdom (regnum), subregnum, division or phylum (divisio, phylum), subdivisio or subphylum, class (classis), subclassis, order (ordo), subordo, family (familia), subfamilia, tribe (tribus), subtribus, genus (genus), subgenus, section (sectio), subsectio, series (series), subseries, species (species), subspecies, variety (varietas), subvarietas, form (forma), subforma.

    Main taxonomic ranks

    There is 8 main taxonomic ranks: kingdom, phylum, division, class, order, family, genus, species.
    Main taxonomic ranks in more languages (zoology and botany)
    Latin English German Spanish French Japan
    regnumkingdomReichreinorègne 
    phyllumphylum1Stammfilophylum 
    divisiodivision2Abteilungdivisiónembranchement 
    classisclassKlasseclaseclasse
    ordoorderOrdnungordenordre
    familiafamilyFamiliefamiliafamille
    genusgenusGattunggénerogenre
    speciesspeciesArtespecieespèce 

    Notes to table: 1 Phylum is used in zoology. It is at the same level as division in botany. 2 Preferred before to phylum in botany, that is accounted as identical.

    Examples

    The usual classifications of five species follow: the fruit fly so familiar in genetics laboratories (Drosophila melanogaster), humans (Homo sapiens), the peas used by Gregor Mendel in his discovery of genetics (Pisum sativum), the "fly agaric" mushroom Amanita muscaria, and the bacterium Escherichia coli. The eight major ranks are given in bold; a selection of minor ranks are given as well.

    RankFruit flyHumanPeaFly AgaricE. coli
    DomainEukaryaEukaryaEukaryaEukaryaBacteria
    KingdomAnimaliaAnimaliaPlantaeFungi
    Phylum or DivisionArthropodaChordataMagnoliophytaBasidiomycotaProteobacteria
    Subphylum or subdivisionHexapodaVertebrataMagnoliophytinaHymenomycotina
    ClassInsectaMammaliaMagnoliopsidaHomobasidiomycetaeGammaproteobacteria
    SubclassPterygotaTheriaMagnoliidaeHymenomycetes
    OrderDipteraPrimatesFabalesAgaricalesEnterobacteriales
    SuborderBrachyceraHaplorrhiniFabineaeAgaricineae
    FamilyDrosophilidaeHominidaeFabaceaeAmanitaceaeEnterobacteriaceae
    SubfamilyDrosophilinaeHomininaeFaboideaeAmanitoideae
    GenusDrosophilaHomoPisumAmanitaEscherichia
    SpeciesD. melanogasterH. sapiensP. sativumA. muscariaE. coli

    Table Notes:
    • The ranks of higher taxa, especially intermediate ranks, are prone to revision as new information about relationships is discovered. For example, the traditional classification of primates (class Mammalia — subclass Theria — infraclass Eutheria — order Primates) has been modified by new classifications such as McKenna and Bell (class Mammalia — subclass Theriformes — infraclass Holotheria) with Theria and Eutheria assigned lower ranks between infraclass and the order Primates. See mammal classification for a discussion. These differences arise because there are only a small number of ranks available and a large number of branching points in the fossil record.

    • Within species further units may be recognised. Animals may be classified into subspecies (for example, Homo sapiens sapiens, modern humans) or morph (for example Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus, the Pied Raven). Plants may be classified into subspecies (for example, Pisum sativum subsp. sativum, the garden pea) or varieties (for example, Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon, snow pea), with cultivated plants getting a cultivar name (for example, Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon 'Snowbird'). Bacteria may be classified by strains (for example H7, a strain that can cause food poisoning).


    Terminations of names

    Taxa above the genus level are often given names based on the type genus, with a standard termination. The terminations used in forming these names depend on the kingdom, and sometimes the phylum and class, as set out in the table below.

    RankPlantsAlgaeFungiAnimalsBacteria Bacteriologocal Code (1990 Revision)
    Division/Phylum -phyta -mycota
    Subdivision/Subphylum -phytina -mycotina
    Class -opsida -phyceae -mycetes -ia
    Subclass -idae -phycidae -mycetidae -idae
    Superorder -anae
    Order -ales -ales
    Suborder -ineae -ineae
    Infraorder -aria
    Superfamily -acea -oidea
    Epifamily -oidae
    Family -aceae -idae -aceae
    Subfamily -oideae -inae -oideae
    Infrafamily -odd
    Tribe -eae -ini -eae
    Subtribe -inae -ina -inae
    Infratribe -ad

    Table notes:
    • In botany and mycology names at the rank of family and below are based on the name of a genus, sometimes called the type genus of that taxon, with a standard ending. For example, the rose family Rosaceae is named after the genus Rosa, with the standard ending "-aceae" for a family. Names above the rank of family are formed from a family name, or are descriptive (like Gymnospermae or Fungi).

    • For animals, there are standard suffixes for taxa only up to the rank of superfamily.ICZN article 27.2

    • Forming a name based on a generic name may be not straightforward. For example, the Latin "homo" has the genitive "hominis", thus the genus "Homo" (human) is in the Hominidae, not "Homidae".

    • The ranks of epifamily, infrafamily and infratribe (in animals) are used where the complexities of phyletic branching require finer-than-usual distinctions. Although they fall below the rank of superfamily, they are not regulated under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and hence do not have formal standard endings. The suffixes listed here are regular, but informal.As supplied by Eugene S. Gaffney & Peter A. Meylan (1988), "A phylogeny of turtles", in M.J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds 157-219 (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

    All taxonomic ranks

    There are written all taxonomic ranks including those ones that are not in use today or those ones that are identical with another ranks.
    All taxonomic ranks in more languages (zoology and botany)
    Latin English German French Notes
     superdomain   
    regiodomainDomänedomaine 
     subdomain   
     infradomain   
    imperiumempire empire 
    superregnumsuperkingdom   
     suprakingdom   
     midkingdom   
    regnumkingdomReichrègne 
    subregnumsubkingdomUnterreichsous-règne 
     interkingdom   
     branch   
     infrakingdom   
    superphyllumsuperphylumStammgruppe, Überstammsuper-phylum 
     supraphylum   
     midphylum   
    phyllumphylumStammphylum  
    subphyllumsubphylumUnterstammsous-phylum 
    infraphylluminfraphylum   
    divisiodivision1Abteilungembranchement, division 
    subdivisiosubdivision1Unterabteilungsous-embranchement 
    claudiusclaudius   
    superclassissuperclassÜberklassesuper-classe 
     gradeReihe  
    classisclassKlasseclasse 
    subclassissubclassUnterklassesous-classe 
     infraclass infra-classe 
    parvclassisparvclass   
    superdivisiosuperdivision2Überabteilungsuper-embranchment 
    divisiodivision2Abteilungembranchement, division 
    subdivisiosubdivision2Unterabteilungsous-embranchement 
    sectiosection2   
     subsection2   
     group   
     subgroup   
     superlegion   
    legiolegion   
     sublegion   
     infralegion   
    supercohossupercohort   
    cohorscohort   
    subcohorssubcohort   
     magnorder   
    superordosuperorderÜberordnungsuperordre 
     series   
     subseries   
     grandorder   
     gigaorder   
     megaorder   
     mirorder   
    ordoorderOrdnungordre 
    hyperordohyperorder   
    subordosuborderUnterordnungsous-ordre 
    infraordoinfraorderInfraordnunginfraordre 
     parvorder   
    falanx    
    cohorscohort   
    superfamiliasuperfamilyÜberfamiliesuperfamille 
     family group   
    familiafamilyFamiliefamille 
     subfamily group   
    subfamiliasubfamilyUnterfamiliesous-famille 
     infrafamily   
    supertribussupertribe   
    tribustribeTribustribu 
    subtribussubtribeSubtribussous-tribu 
     infratribe   
    supergenussupergenus   
     genus group   
    genusgenusGattunggenre 
    subgenussubgenusUntergattungsous-genre 
     infragenus   
    supersectiosupersection1   
    sectiosection1 section 
    subsectiosubsection1   
     infrasection1   
     superseries1   
    seriesseries1 série 
     subseries1   
     infraseries1   
    superspeciessuperspecies   
     complex   
     species group   
     species subgroup   
     aggregate   
     synklepton   
    speciesspeciesArtespèce 
     microspecies   
    kleptonklepton   
     aggregate   
    subspeciessubspeciesUnterart (Rasse)sous-espèce 
     infraspecies   
     group   
    hybridhybrid   
    convarietasconvariety   
    supervarietassupervariety   
    varietasvarietyVarietätvariété 
    subvarietassubvariety   
     infravariety   
    natio    
    superformasuperform   
    forma, morphaformZuchtformforme 
    subformasubform   
     infraform   
     cultivar group   
     cultivar   
     group of breeds   
     section of breeds   
     breed, race   
     strain   
    aberratioaberration   
     serogroup   
     serotype sérovar 
     biotype biovar 
     pathotype pathovar 
     population   
    lususlusus   

    Notes to table: 1 Level in plant taxonomy. 2 Level in animal taxonomy.