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Unclean animals

    are considered non-kosher ("unfit" or "unclean") in the Old Testament because they do not chew the cud even though they do have split hooves


    In the context of Judaism the phrase unclean animals refers to those listed in the book of Leviticus in the Hebrew Bible; the intent is that they not be consumed for food Many animals in the passage that are unclean have the characteristic of (but not limited to) having no divided hoofs (feet) and/or also do not chew the cud (food) for it to be regurgitated If one of each characteristic is present then the animal is unclean The Bible states: "Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel because he cheweth the cud but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you" Leviticus 11:4 For Judaism these are the sources of all the laws concerning clean and unclean animals stemming from the book of Leviticus which states all the characteristics of animals that are deemed clean and those that are not In Judaism Kashrut (kosher) is the set of dietary laws governing what can or cannot be consumed
    ¹ Jewish law forbids the eating of pork in any form considering the animal as unclean


    In Christianity it should be noted that the vast majority of adherents do not follow the Mosaic dietary laws The commonly held theological position is that with the death and resurrection of Jesus the "Old Covenant" and its restrictions no longer apply The main exception to this are the Seventh Day Adventists


    In Islam pigs are considered unclean and not eaten Dogs are also considered unclean and Muslims must not be licked by them--if they do they must perform purification

    Science Studies on unclean/clean animals

    In 1953 Dr David I. Macht a Jewish scientist at John Hopkins conducted toxicity tests on many different kinds of animals and fish and concluded that the toxicity of Levitically "unclean" animals was higher than that of the "clean" animals and that the correlation with the description in Leviticus was 100% Dr. Macht used a toxicology test cited in the peer reviewed literature [1] Macht's conclusions were challenged by some scientist in a Seventh Day Adventist publication although one partially affirmed his study [2] Seventh Day adventist believe in eating kosher but Christians are in general agreement that they can eat the food that was declared unclean in the Old Testament (Galations 2: 7-16 and 1 Timothy 4:1-5)Some of the criticism of Dr. Macht's study is regarding controversy about what animals are kosher and what animals are non-kosher (see: reference section and various Scipture translations) For those who are interested in the toxicology test Dr. Macht used in greater depth Dr. Macht discusses the reliability of toxicology method he used in relation to zoological toxins in the peer reviewed science literature (see reference section) Perhaps in the long term is eating food that is more toxic and that the Torah declared unclean less healthy or perhaps it makes no difference This question is an unanswered question of science Also eating non kosher foods clearly has some nutritional benefit For example shrimp and pork contain protein Perhaps the benefits outweigh the cost and clearly there is some nutritional goodness in foods that the Torah delcared unclean In short what foods are good or not good from a empirically tested science viewpoint is often controversial
    In regards to pork Jane Cahill reported in Biblical Archeological Review (Jane Cahill and Peter Warnock "It had to happen Scientist Examines Ancient Bathrooms of Romans 586BC" BAR May/June 1991 ) that the toilets of a Jewish household in Jerusalem were examine and no parasites or infectious agents were found A similar study done regarding Egyptians revealed eggs from Schistosoma Trichinella wire worm and tapeworms all found in pork These organisms can cause significant chronic diseases Of course this is only one finding but perhaps noteworthy A 1985 study by Nanji and French found that there was a significant relationship between cirrohosis and pork consumption [3] Of course as noted earlier even unclean foods have their benefits and what is nutritionally sound in the long terms from a empirical science standpoint in relation to clean and unclean food in general appears to be an unanswered question

    Unclean animals mentioned in the Bible

    Unclean animals are specially mentioned in the book of Leviticus Chapter 11. See: bible on Wikisource are forbidden "crawling creatures"See also: Camels; chameleons; coneys; cuckows; eagles; ferrets; hares; hawks; herons; lapwings; lizards; mole; ospreys; ossifrages; owls; pelicans; ravens; storks;swine ¹; weasels; vultures
    are forbidden insects

    Expanded list

    This list contains animals that are not specified in the Bible but from the characteristics mentioned in the passage (Letvicus 11:1-47) in the Bible are considered to be unclean
    Abalone; Alligators; Ant; Ape; Bear; Cat; Catfish; Cheetah; Clam; Cockatoo; Crab; Crayfish; Crow; Dingo; Dog; Dolphins; Donkey; Echidna; Eel; Elephant; Fox; Gecko; Gibbon; Hedgehog; Jellyfish; Kangaroo; Lion; Lobster;Lynx; Magpie; Monkey; Mussel; Parrot; Penguin; Platypus; Prawns; Rat; Scallop; Seahorse; Seal; Shark; Shrimp; Squid; Squirrel; Snake; Starfish; Tiger; Turtle; Wallaby; Whales; Wombat; Wolf; Worm; Zebra
    This is in addition to anything in the Bible describes (see further reading) as an "unclean animal" due to its physical features

    See also

    Further reading

    • Leviticus Chapter 11 Verses 1-47

    External link